Liberian Distress Screener

Information about Measure
First Name Katrin
Last Name Fabian
Email Not Available
Affiliation Department of Global Health, University of Washington
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website, Academia.edu, ResearchGate)
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated Liberian Distress Screener
Mental health condition assessed Trauma- and stressor-related disorders
Idiom of distress included, if any Scale includes 11 unique Liberian idioms of distress
Lifestage of interest Adult (General)
Age range (age – age) 19-81
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Liberia
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Liberian English
Clinical or community sample? Community
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)?
Development procedures Locally developed
If validated, what was the gold standard?
Description of other development procedures, if applicable
Cronbach’s alpha
Sensitivity
Spec
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio])
Citations of development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Fabian, K., Fannoh, J., Washington, G. G., Geninyan, W. B., Nyachienga, B., Cyrus, G., & Hallowanger, J. (2018). ‘‘My Heart Die in Me’’: Idioms of Distress and the Development of a Screening Tool for Mental Suffering in Southeast Liberia. Cultural Medical Psychiatry, (42), 684-703.
Notes when administering the tool The tool may be filled out by participants or administered verbally. Total scores are generated by summing each item with equal weight. More extensive work evaluating the screener is anticipated by its authors.

Arab Youth Mental Health Scale

Information about Measure
First Name Rema
Last Name Afifi
Email Not Available
Affiliation Department of Health Behavior and Education, American University of Beirut
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website, Academia.edu, ResearchGate)
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated Arab Youth Mental Health Scale
Mental health condition assessed Multiple disorders: Common mental disorders
Idiom of distress included, if any Not Applicable
Lifestage of interest Childhood or Adolescence
Age range (age – age) 13-17
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Lebanon
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Arabic
Clinical or community sample? Community
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)?
Development procedures Locally developed
If validated, what was the gold standard?
Description of other development procedures, if applicable Several items used in the construction of the Arab Youth Mental Health Scale were pulled from existing surveys, specifically the Center for Epidemiological Studies- Depression Scale, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.
Cronbach’s alpha 0.901
Sensitivity
Spec
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio])
Citations of development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Makhoul, J., Nakkash, R. T., Hajj, T. E., Abdulrahim, S., Kanj, M., Mahfoud, Z., & Afifi, R. A. (2010). Development and Validation of the Arab Youth Mental Health Scale. Community Mental Health Journal, 47(3), 331-340. doi:10.1007/s10597-010-9312-6
Notes when administering the tool The tool should be administered by trained research assistants who are fluent in Arabic.

Hopkins Symptom Checklist-37A (HSCL-37A) – Congo

Information about Measure
First Name Cindy
Last Name Mels
Email Not Available
Affiliation Department of Orthopedagogics, Ghent University
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website, Academia.edu, ResearchGate)
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated Hopkins Symptom Checklist-37A (HSCL-37A) – Congo
Mental health condition assessed Multiple disorders: Common mental disorders; Behavioral Problems
Idiom of distress included, if any Not Applicable
Lifestage of interest Childhood or Adolescence and Young Adults
Age range (age – age) 13-21
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Congolese French and Swahili
Clinical or community sample? Community
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)? 13 secondary schools in the Ituri district
Development procedures Culturally adapted
If validated, what was the gold standard?
Description of other development procedures, if applicable
Cronbach’s alpha 0.91
Sensitivity
Spec
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio])
Citations of development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Mels, C., Derluyn, I., Broekaert, E., & Rosseel, Y. (2009). Community-based cross-cultural adaptation of mental health measures in emergency settings: Validating the IES-R and HSCL-37A in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45(9), 899-910. doi:10.1007/s00127-009-0128-z
Notes when administering the tool The instrument may be self-administered or verbally administered by a trained research assistant, depending upon the age and other characteristics of the study population. In the original development of this tool, a more rigorous translation procedure was adopted for the Congolese French version than for the Swahili version, though most students in the publication sample completed the Swahili HSCL-37A. The HSCL-37A items range on a likert scale and all items should be summed with equal weight to calculate a participant’s total score.

Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-5 (CASI-5) – Uganda

Information about Measure
First Name Richard Stephen
Last Name Mpango
Email Not Available
Affiliation Research Scientist, Mental Health Project, MRC/UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website, Academia.edu, ResearchGate)
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-5 (CASI-5) – Uganda
Mental health condition assessed Multiple disorders: Common emotional and behavioral disorders
Idiom of distress included, if any Several idioms of distress are captured in the adapted version of the scale
Lifestage of interest Childhood or Adolescence
Age range (age – age)
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Uganda
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Luganda
Clinical or community sample? Clinical
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)? Caregivers of children attending a Child and Adolescent HIV Clinic at Butabika Hospital
Development procedures Culturally adapted
If validated, what was the gold standard?
Description of other development procedures, if applicable
Cronbach’s alpha
Sensitivity
Spec
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio])
Citations of development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Mpango, R. S., Kinyanda, E., Rukundo, G. Z., Gadow, K. D., & Patel, V. (2017). Cross-cultural adaptation of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory-5 (CASI-5) for use in central and south-western Uganda: The CHAKA project. Tropical Doctor, 47(4), 347-354. doi:10.1177/0049475517724688
Notes when administering the tool The tool should be administered by trained research assistants who are fluent in Luganda. Trained research assistants should administer the tool to the primary caretaker of the children participating in the study.

The Shona Symptom Questionnaire

Information about Measure
First Name Patel
Last Name Vikram
Email Not Available
Affiliation Harvard Medical School, Institute of Global Health and Social Medicine
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website, Academia.edu, ResearchGate)
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated The Shona Symptom Questionnaire
Mental health condition assessed Multiple disorders: Common mental health disorders– e.g. psychotic, depressive, anxiety related disorders
Idiom of distress included, if any Not Applicable
Lifestage of interest Adult (General)
Age range (age – age) 16 – 65
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Zimbabwe
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Shona
Clinical or community sample? Other
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)? The tool was validated in clinical samples drawn from primary health care clinics, traditional medical practitioners, and community residents.
Development procedures locally-developed, validated
If validated, what was the gold standard? The Revised Clinician Interview Schedule (Shona translation) and clinician rated ‘caseness’
Description of other development procedures, if applicable The SSQ items were developed from focus groups and interviews with community members, traditional medical practitioners, and expert panel review.
Cronbach’s alpha 0.85
Sensitivity 0.82
Spec 0.7
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio]) The validation sample (n=302) was drawn from community residents, primary care clinics, and traditional medical providers. Specificity and sensitivity above are reported at a cutoff of 5/6. At this cutoff, PPV=.58 and NPV =.89.
Citations of development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Patel, V., Simunyu, E., Gwanzura, F., Lewis, G., & Mann, A. (1997). The Shona Symptom Questionnaire: the development of an indigenous measure of common mental disorders in Harare. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica95(6), 469–475. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1997.tb10134.x
Notes when administering the tool The SSQ is a 14 item questionnaire that asks if subjects have experienced a symptom in the last week (1= yes, 0= no). The total score is used. The scale is developed to be administered as self-report or read aloud by a literate lay-person.

The Afghan Symptom Checklist

Information about Measure
First Name Kenneth
Last Name Miller
Email Not Available
Affiliation War Child Holland
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website, Academia.edu, ResearchGate) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kenneth_Miller11
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated The Afghan Symptom Checklist
Mental health condition assessed Trauma- and stressor-related disorders
Idiom of distress included, if any “thinking too much”; jigar khun; asabi; “beating oneself”; fishar-e-bala; fishar-e-payin
Lifestage of interest Adult (General)
Age range (age – age)
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Afghanistan
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Dari
Clinical or community sample? Community
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)?
Development procedures Locally developed
If validated, what was the gold standard?
Description of other development procedures, if applicable Narratives of distress and recovery following adversity were collected in a convenience sample of 10 men and 10 women to develop 22  original indicator items. These were translated and back-translated from English to Dari, then reviewed and modified for clarity by two local consultants and pilot-tested in a group of 60 community members before administration in a community survey (n=324) in 8 of 16 districts in Kabul. Principal components analysis identified three main factors: Sadness with Social Withdrawal and Somatic distress (Cronbach’s alpha = .93), Ruminative Sadness Without Social Withdrawal (Cronbach’s alpha = .88), and Stress Induced Reactivity (Cronbach’s alpha-.74).
Cronbach’s alpha .74 – .93
Sensitivity
Spec
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio])
Links to development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Miller, K. E., Omidian, P., Quraishy, A. S., Quraishy, N., Nasiry, M. N., Nasiry, S., Karyar N.M & Yaqubi, A. A. (2006). The Afghan symptom checklist: a culturally grounded approach to mental health assessment in a conflict zone. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry76(4), 423-433.
Notes when administering the tool The tool measures three dimensions of mental health: functioning in the community, functioning within one’s family, and one’s internal state.

Due to low literacy, study authors read all items aloud and asked participants to indicate the frequency of symptoms by employing a visual graphic that depicts five glasses ranging from empty (“never”) to some liquid (“1 day per week”) to half full (“2–3 days per week”) to mostly full (“4–5 days per week”) to full (“every day”).

Child Psychosocial Distress Screener (CPDS)

Information about Measure
First Name Mark
Last Name Jordans
Email
Affiliation Center for Global Mental Health
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website, Academia.edu, ResearchGate) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mark_Jordans
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated Child Psychosocial Distress Screener (CPDS)
Mental health condition assessed Trauma- and stressor-related disorders
Idiom of distress included, if any Not Applicable
Lifestage of interest Childhood or Adolescence
Age range (age – age) 7-17
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Burundi
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Kirundi
Clinical or community sample? Community
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)?
Development procedures Culturally adapted, validated, and locally developed
If validated, what was the gold standard?
Description of other development procedures, if applicable Based on clinical experience and a literature review, the study authors developed an initial set of eight items assessing traumatic and current distress, protective factors, and academic functioning. These were translated into Kirundi, reviewed, and blindly back-translated. This instrument was pilot-tested in focus groups with local community members and modified to include additional probes based on feedback. The final instrument was then field-tested in a community sample of children (n=2,240), and a smaller subsample (n=65) were administered a clinical psychosocial assessment and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K–SADS) by a psychiatrist.

Reliability for the final seven-item measure was low (Cronbach’s alpha =..53) but the inclusion of subquestions increased reliability to good (.88). Test–retest analyses demonstrated a Spearman–Brown coefficient of .83 ( p< .001) and Pearson correlation of .71 ( p <.001).

 

CPDS total scores were able to significantly distinguish between children with clinical diagnoses using the K-SADS (p<.001).

 

Cronbach’s alpha .54
Sensitivity .80-.94
Spec .65-.75
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio])
Links to development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Jordans, M. J., Ventevogel, P., Komproe, I. H., Tol, W. A., & de Jong, J. T. (2008). Development and validation of the child psychosocial distress screener in Burundi. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry78(3), 290-299.
Notes when administering the tool The CPDS is a valid multidimensional instrument that measures nonspecific child psychosocial distress and detects children with an indication for psychosocial treatment. Because of brevity and the ability to be administered by nonspecialists, the CPDS can respond to current needs for an instrument to screen large populations of conflict- affected children. It consists of seven items, five for the child and two for the teacher of the child. Three of the seven items have probes. With 2 to 3 min for the child and 1 to 2 min for the teacher, administration is short. The child items ask for exposure to traumatic events, appraised traumatic distress, current distress, perceived social support, and coping. The teacher items ask for observed distress within the school setting and school attendance (see Appendix for the questionnaire).

Penn/RESIST/Peradeniya War Problems Questionnaire (PRPWPQ), Depression and Anxiety Sub-Sections of War-Related Psychological and Behavioral Problems

Information about Measure
First Name Nuwan
Last Name Jayawickreme
Affiliation Manhattan College
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website, Academia.edu, ResearchGate) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nuwan_Jayawickreme/info
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated The Penn/RESIST/Peradeniya War Problems Questionnaire, with included Depression and Anxiety Sub-Sections of War-Related Psychological and Behavioral Problems
Mental health condition assessed Anxiety/Depression
Idiom of distress included, if any All items derived from qualitative interviews and exploratory factor analysis. Idioms used include “disgust in life” , “thinking a lot about my past (old memories), causing psychological confusion”, and “inability to make decisions (not knowing what to talk and what not to talk”
Lifestage of interest Adult (General)
Age range (age – age)
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Sri Lanka
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Tamil
Clinical or community sample? Clinical
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)? Tamil individuals who were receiving psychosocial assistance at local clinics
Development procedures Culturally adapted, validated, and locally developed
If validated, what was the gold standard?
Description of other development procedures, if applicable
Cronbach’s alpha .88  -.93
Sensitivity
Spec
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio]) This locally developed tool assesses anxiety and depression symptoms related to wartime experiences in Tamil communities.

 

Cronbach’s alpha for the anxiety (.93) depression (.92) and negative perceptions (.88) was performed.

Regression analysis performed  comparing the amount of functional impairment (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule WHODAS) predicted by the PRPWPQ vs. gold-standard scales of anxiety and depressive symptoms (PTSD Symptom Scale–Self Report and the Beck Depression Inventory). PRPWPQ predicted WHODAS over and above PSS and BDI.

Links to development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool https://www.interventionjournal.com/sites/default/files/7.3%20Jayawickreme%20et%20al.pdf

 

Jayawickreme, N., Jayawickreme, E., Atanasov, P., Goonasekera, M. A., & Foa, E. B. (2012). Are culturally specific measures of trauma-related anxiety and depression needed? The case of Sri Lanka. Psychological Assessment, 24(4), 791-800.
Notes when administering the tool The tool should be administered in a clinical setting.

Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

Information about Measure
First Name Ayalu
Last Name Reda
Email Not Available
Affiliation Haramaya University, Department of Public Health
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website, Academia.edu, ResearchGate)
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)
Mental health condition assessed Multiple disorders: Anxiety and depression
Idiom of distress included, if any Not Applicable
Lifestage of interest Adult (General)
Age range (age – age)
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Ethiopia
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Amharic
Clinical or community sample? Clinical
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)? Adults with HIV/AIDS taking anti-retroviral treatment
Development procedures Culturally adapted
If validated, what was the gold standard?
Description of other development procedures, if applicable
Cronbach’s alpha 0.87
Sensitivity
Spec
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio]) The internal consistency was 0.78 for the anxiety, 0.76 for depression subscales and 0.87 for the full scale of HADS. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 80%, 86%, and 84% for the anxiety and depression subscales, and total score, respectively.
Links to development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Reda, A. A. (2011). Reliability and Validity of the Ethiopian Version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in HIV Infected Patients. PLoS ONE, 6(1). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016049
Notes when administering the tool The HADS can be broken down into depression and anxiety subscales, as illustrated in the study cited under the Links tab. Each item is rated on a Likert scale from 0-3 and all items are summed with equal weight. Sub-scoreson the anxiety or depression subscales ranging from 0 to 7 areconsidered normal; while 8 to 10 and 11 to 21 are considered ‘cause for concern’ and ‘probable cases of anxiety or depression’
respectively.

Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) – Kenya

Information about Measure
First Name Enbal
Last Name Shacham
Email Not Available
Affiliation Department of Psychiatry, Washington University
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website, Academia.edu, ResearchGate)
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) – Kenya
Mental health condition assessed Other: Psychological Distress Symptoms
Idiom of distress included, if any Not Applicable
Lifestage of interest Adult (General)
Age range (age – age)
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Kenya
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Swahili
Clinical or community sample? Other
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)? Individuals Participating in a Support Group for HIV/AIDS Patients
Development procedures Culturally adapted and validated
If validated, what was the gold standard? Convergent Validity from Community Focus Groups
Description of other development procedures, if applicable
Cronbach’s alpha 0.95
Sensitivity
Spec
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio]) Cronbach’s alpha was assessed for the various subscales examined in the original study (cited in the Links tab). The global severity index (GSI) exhibited the best internal reliability at 0.95, and is therefore encouraged for use. The Intraclass coefficient (ICC) for the GSI was 0.70.
Links to development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Enbal Shacham, Michael Reece, Patrick O. Monahan, Violet Yebei, Otieno
Omollo, Willis Owino Ong’or & Claris Ojwang (2008) Measuring psychological distress symptoms in individuals living with HIV in western Kenya, Journal of Mental Health, 17:4, 424-434, DOI:10.1080/09638230701530192
Notes when administering the tool The instrument should be administered verbally in Swahili by a trained research assistant. Each item is scored from 0 to 4 and the sum score is calculated by summing each item with equal weight.