Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)- Ethiopia

Information about Measure
First Name Ayalu
Last Name Reda
Email Not Available
Affiliation Haramaya University, Department of Public Health
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website,, ResearchGate)
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)
Mental health condition assessed Anxiety and depression
Idiom of distress included, if any Not Applicable
Lifestage of interest Adult (General)
Age range (age – age)
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Ethiopia
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Amharic
Clinical or community sample? Clinical
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)? Adults with HIV/AIDS taking anti-retroviral treatment
Development procedures Culturally adapted
If validated, what was the gold standard?
Description of other development procedures, if applicable
Cronbach’s alpha 0.87
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio]) The internal consistency was 0.78 for the anxiety, 0.76 for depression subscales and 0.87 for the full scale of HADS. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 80%, 86%, and 84% for the anxiety and depression subscales, and total score, respectively.
Links to development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Reda, A. A. (2011). Reliability and Validity of the Ethiopian Version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in HIV Infected Patients. PLoS ONE, 6(1). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016049
Notes when administering the tool The HADS can be broken down into depression and anxiety subscales, as illustrated in the study cited under the Links tab. Each item is rated on a Likert scale from 0-3 and all items are summed with equal weight. Sub-scoreson the anxiety or depression subscales ranging from 0 to 7 areconsidered normal; while 8 to 10 and 11 to 21 are considered ‘cause for concern’ and ‘probable cases of anxiety or depression’ respectively.