Thai Depression Inventory

Information about Measure
First Name Manote
Last Name Lotrakul
Email Not Available
Affiliation Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website, Academia.edu, ResearchGate)
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated The Thai Depression Inventory
Mental health condition assessed Depressive disorders
Idiom of distress included, if any Not Applicable
Lifestage of interest Adult (General)
Age range (age – age)
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Thailand
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Thai
Clinical or community sample? Clinical
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)? 50 adults in an urban inpatient and outpatient psychiatric clinic
Development procedures locally-developed,culturally-adapted,validated
If validated, what was the gold standard? Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression Thai Version
Description of other development procedures, if applicable
Cronbach’s alpha 0.858
Sensitivity
Spec
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio]) A 20 item scale was developed by local Thai clinicians after a literature review. It was translated and adapted by the expert team and then piloted in an initial set of 20 depressed Thai psychiatric patients. Their feedback was integrated to produce the final 20 item scale.

Factor analysis suggested a five-factor structure explaining the majority of the variance.

The Pearson correlation with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was 0.7188 (p<0.0001), Comparison with the HRSD suggested a Thai Depression Inventory cutoff score of 34 as suggestive of major depression.

Citations of development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Lotrakul, M., & Sukanich, P. (1999). Development of the Thai depression inventory. JOURNAL-MEDICAL ASSOCIATION OF THAILAND, 82(12), 1200-1207.
Notes when administering the tool The tool consists of 20 items rated on a three point likert scale, with all item weighted equally. Scores range form 0 – 60 and the total score is used. The scale is administered by a clincian in Thai.

Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)- Nepal

Information about Measure
First Name Brandon
Last Name Kohrt
Email Not Available
Affiliation Duke Global Health Institute, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, USA
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website, Academia.edu, ResearchGate) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Brandon_Kohrt
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated Patient Health Questionnaire 9, PHQ9 Nepal Version
Mental health condition assessed Depressive disorders
Idiom of distress included, if any manko samasya or “heart-mind” problems
Lifestage of interest Adult (General)
Age range (age – age)
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Nepal
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Nepali
Clinical or community sample? Community
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)? 125 male and female adults drawn from a random sample of community clinics in Nepal.
Development procedures culturally-adapted,validated,locally-developed
If validated, what was the gold standard? Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) Nepal version
Description of other development procedures, if applicable
Cronbach’s alpha 0.84
Sensitivity 0.94
Spec 0.8
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio]) The PHQ9 was translated and reviewed by community focus groups drawn from diverse age, caste, and literacy levels. After revision for concept and semantic validity, items assessing the local idiom of distress ‘heart-mind’ problems were added. It was administered as an interview to a community sample of adult men and women along with the clinician adminstered CIDI.

Senstivity and specificity are reported for a PHQ9 cutoff score of 10 and above. PPV was 0.42 (95 % CI 0.27—0.59), and NPV was 0.99 (95 % CI 0.93—1.00), with a positive likelihood ratio of 4.62 (95 % CI 3.12—6.83), and negative likelihood ratio of 0.07 (95 % CI 0.01—0.47). Heart-mind problems had a sensitivity of 0.94 (95 % CI 0.69—1.00), specificity of 0.27 (95 % CI 0.19—0.36), PPV of 0.17 (95 % CI 0.10—0.26), and NPV of 0.97 (95 % CI 0.81—1.00). Brain-mind problems had low sensitivity for CIDI positive status (sensitivity = 0.47, 95 % CI 0.25—0.71).

Citations of development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Kohrt, B. A., Luitel, N. P., Acharya, P., & Jordans, M. J. (2016). Detection of depression in low resource settings: validation of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and cultural concepts of distress in Nepal. BMC psychiatry, 16(1), 58.
Notes when administering the tool The PHQ9 Nepal version should be administered by a healthcare worker as an interview. Visual response aids may be helpful. The total score is used with all items equally weighted.

The Shona Symptom Questionnaire

Information about Measure
First Name Patel
Last Name Vikram
Email Not Available
Affiliation Harvard Medical School, Institute of Global Health and Social Medicine
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website, Academia.edu, ResearchGate)
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated The Shona Symptom Questionnaire
Mental health condition assessed Multiple disorders: Common mental health disorders– e.g. psychotic, depressive, anxiety related disorders
Idiom of distress included, if any Not Applicable
Lifestage of interest Adult (General)
Age range (age – age) 16 – 65
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Zimbabwe
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Shona
Clinical or community sample? Other
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)? The tool was validated in clinical samples drawn from primary health care clinics, traditional medical practitioners, and community residents.
Development procedures locally-developed, validated
If validated, what was the gold standard? The Revised Clinician Interview Schedule (Shona translation) and clinician rated ‘caseness’
Description of other development procedures, if applicable The SSQ items were developed from focus groups and interviews with community members, traditional medical practitioners, and expert panel review.
Cronbach’s alpha 0.85
Sensitivity 0.82
Spec 0.7
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio]) The validation sample (n=302) was drawn from community residents, primary care clinics, and traditional medical providers. Specificity and sensitivity above are reported at a cutoff of 5/6. At this cutoff, PPV=.58 and NPV =.89.
Citations of development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Patel, V., Simunyu, E., Gwanzura, F., Lewis, G., & Mann, A. (1997). The Shona Symptom Questionnaire: the development of an indigenous measure of common mental disorders in Harare. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica95(6), 469–475. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.1997.tb10134.x
Notes when administering the tool The SSQ is a 14 item questionnaire that asks if subjects have experienced a symptom in the last week (1= yes, 0= no). The total score is used. The scale is developed to be administered as self-report or read aloud by a literate lay-person.

The Afghan Symptom Checklist

Information about Measure
First Name Kenneth
Last Name Miller
Email Not Available
Affiliation War Child Holland
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website, Academia.edu, ResearchGate) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kenneth_Miller11
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated The Afghan Symptom Checklist
Mental health condition assessed Trauma- and stressor-related disorders
Idiom of distress included, if any “thinking too much”; jigar khun; asabi; “beating oneself”; fishar-e-bala; fishar-e-payin
Lifestage of interest Adult (General)
Age range (age – age)
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Afghanistan
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Dari
Clinical or community sample? Community
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)?
Development procedures Locally developed
If validated, what was the gold standard?
Description of other development procedures, if applicable Narratives of distress and recovery following adversity were collected in a convenience sample of 10 men and 10 women to develop 22  original indicator items. These were translated and back-translated from English to Dari, then reviewed and modified for clarity by two local consultants and pilot-tested in a group of 60 community members before administration in a community survey (n=324) in 8 of 16 districts in Kabul. Principal components analysis identified three main factors: Sadness with Social Withdrawal and Somatic distress (Cronbach’s alpha = .93), Ruminative Sadness Without Social Withdrawal (Cronbach’s alpha = .88), and Stress Induced Reactivity (Cronbach’s alpha-.74).
Cronbach’s alpha .74 – .93
Sensitivity
Spec
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio])
Links to development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Miller, K. E., Omidian, P., Quraishy, A. S., Quraishy, N., Nasiry, M. N., Nasiry, S., Karyar N.M & Yaqubi, A. A. (2006). The Afghan symptom checklist: a culturally grounded approach to mental health assessment in a conflict zone. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry76(4), 423-433.
Notes when administering the tool The tool measures three dimensions of mental health: functioning in the community, functioning within one’s family, and one’s internal state.

Due to low literacy, study authors read all items aloud and asked participants to indicate the frequency of symptoms by employing a visual graphic that depicts five glasses ranging from empty (“never”) to some liquid (“1 day per week”) to half full (“2–3 days per week”) to mostly full (“4–5 days per week”) to full (“every day”).

Child Psychosocial Distress Screener (CPDS)

Information about Measure
First Name Mark
Last Name Jordans
Email
Affiliation Center for Global Mental Health
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website, Academia.edu, ResearchGate) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mark_Jordans
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated Child Psychosocial Distress Screener (CPDS)
Mental health condition assessed Trauma- and stressor-related disorders
Idiom of distress included, if any Not Applicable
Lifestage of interest Childhood or Adolescence
Age range (age – age) 7-17
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Burundi
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Kirundi
Clinical or community sample? Community
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)?
Development procedures Culturally adapted, validated, and locally developed
If validated, what was the gold standard?
Description of other development procedures, if applicable Based on clinical experience and a literature review, the study authors developed an initial set of eight items assessing traumatic and current distress, protective factors, and academic functioning. These were translated into Kirundi, reviewed, and blindly back-translated. This instrument was pilot-tested in focus groups with local community members and modified to include additional probes based on feedback. The final instrument was then field-tested in a community sample of children (n=2,240), and a smaller subsample (n=65) were administered a clinical psychosocial assessment and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K–SADS) by a psychiatrist.

Reliability for the final seven-item measure was low (Cronbach’s alpha =..53) but the inclusion of subquestions increased reliability to good (.88). Test–retest analyses demonstrated a Spearman–Brown coefficient of .83 ( p< .001) and Pearson correlation of .71 ( p <.001).

 

CPDS total scores were able to significantly distinguish between children with clinical diagnoses using the K-SADS (p<.001).

 

Cronbach’s alpha .54
Sensitivity .80-.94
Spec .65-.75
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio])
Links to development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Jordans, M. J., Ventevogel, P., Komproe, I. H., Tol, W. A., & de Jong, J. T. (2008). Development and validation of the child psychosocial distress screener in Burundi. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry78(3), 290-299.
Notes when administering the tool The CPDS is a valid multidimensional instrument that measures nonspecific child psychosocial distress and detects children with an indication for psychosocial treatment. Because of brevity and the ability to be administered by nonspecialists, the CPDS can respond to current needs for an instrument to screen large populations of conflict- affected children. It consists of seven items, five for the child and two for the teacher of the child. Three of the seven items have probes. With 2 to 3 min for the child and 1 to 2 min for the teacher, administration is short. The child items ask for exposure to traumatic events, appraised traumatic distress, current distress, perceived social support, and coping. The teacher items ask for observed distress within the school setting and school attendance (see Appendix for the questionnaire).

Penn/RESIST/Peradeniya War Problems Questionnaire (PRPWPQ), Depression and Anxiety Sub-Sections of War-Related Psychological and Behavioral Problems

Information about Measure
First Name Nuwan
Last Name Jayawickreme
Affiliation Manhattan College
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website, Academia.edu, ResearchGate) https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nuwan_Jayawickreme/info
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated The Penn/RESIST/Peradeniya War Problems Questionnaire, with included Depression and Anxiety Sub-Sections of War-Related Psychological and Behavioral Problems
Mental health condition assessed Anxiety/Depression
Idiom of distress included, if any All items derived from qualitative interviews and exploratory factor analysis. Idioms used include “disgust in life” , “thinking a lot about my past (old memories), causing psychological confusion”, and “inability to make decisions (not knowing what to talk and what not to talk”
Lifestage of interest Adult (General)
Age range (age – age)
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Sri Lanka
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Tamil
Clinical or community sample? Clinical
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)? Tamil individuals who were receiving psychosocial assistance at local clinics
Development procedures Culturally adapted, validated, and locally developed
If validated, what was the gold standard?
Description of other development procedures, if applicable
Cronbach’s alpha .88  -.93
Sensitivity
Spec
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio]) This locally developed tool assesses anxiety and depression symptoms related to wartime experiences in Tamil communities.

 

Cronbach’s alpha for the anxiety (.93) depression (.92) and negative perceptions (.88) was performed.

Regression analysis performed  comparing the amount of functional impairment (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule WHODAS) predicted by the PRPWPQ vs. gold-standard scales of anxiety and depressive symptoms (PTSD Symptom Scale–Self Report and the Beck Depression Inventory). PRPWPQ predicted WHODAS over and above PSS and BDI.

Links to development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool https://www.interventionjournal.com/sites/default/files/7.3%20Jayawickreme%20et%20al.pdf

 

Jayawickreme, N., Jayawickreme, E., Atanasov, P., Goonasekera, M. A., & Foa, E. B. (2012). Are culturally specific measures of trauma-related anxiety and depression needed? The case of Sri Lanka. Psychological Assessment, 24(4), 791-800.
Notes when administering the tool The tool should be administered in a clinical setting.