The Afghan Symptom Checklist

Information about Measure
First Name Kenneth
Last Name Miller
Email Not Available
Affiliation War Child Holland
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website,, ResearchGate)
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated The Afghan Symptom Checklist
Mental health condition assessed Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders
Idiom of distress included, if any “thinking too much”; jigar khun; asabi; “beating oneself”; fishar-e-bala; fishar-e-payin
Lifestage of interest Adult (General)
Age range (age – age)
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Afghanistan
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Dari
Clinical or community sample? Community
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)?
Development procedures Locally developed
If validated, what was the gold standard?
Description of other development procedures, if applicable Narratives of distress and recovery following adversity were collected in a convenience sample of 10 men and 10 women to develop 22  original indicator items. These were translated and back-translated from English to Dari, then reviewed and modified for clarity by two local consultants and pilot-tested in a group of 60 community members before administration in a community survey (n=324) in 8 of 16 districts in Kabul. Principal components analysis identified three main factors: Sadness with Social Withdrawal and Somatic distress (Cronbach’s alpha = .93), Ruminative Sadness Without Social Withdrawal (Cronbach’s alpha = .88), and Stress Induced Reactivity (Cronbach’s alpha-.74).
Cronbach’s alpha .74 – .93
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio]) The tool measures three dimensions of mental health: functioning in the community, functioning within one’s family, and one’s internal state.
Links to development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Miller, K. E., Omidian, P., Quraishy, A. S., Quraishy, N., Nasiry, M. N., Nasiry, S., Karyar N.M & Yaqubi, A. A. (2006). The Afghan symptom checklist: a culturally grounded approach to mental health assessment in a conflict zone. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry76(4), 423-433.
Notes when administering the tool This tool should be administered verbally and with the use of visual graphics.