Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)- Nigeria

Information about Measure
First Name Abiodun
Last Name Adewuya
Email Not Available
Affiliation Obafemi Awolowo University
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website,, ResearchGate)
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) in Nigeria
Mental health condition assessed Depressive Disorders
Idiom of distress included, if any Not Applicable
Lifestage of interest Adult (General)
Age range (age – age) 15-40
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Nigeria
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool English
Clinical or community sample? Community
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)? Tested among university students
Development procedures validated
If validated, what was the gold standard? Validated against DSM-IV diagnosis by a clinician
Description of other development procedures, if applicable
Cronbach’s alpha 0.85
Sensitivity 0.897
Spec 0.989
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio]) The psychometric properties recorded for this entry refer to the items that assess minor depressive disorder. Additional psychometrics include: PPV of 0.875, NPV of 0.981, and overall correct classification (OCC) rate of 0.973 all using an optimal cut-off score of 5. For major depressive disorder, the optimal cut-off score was determined to be a 10 and had a sensitivity of 0.846, specificity of 0.994, PPV of 0.750, NPV of 0.996, and OCC of 0.992.
Links to development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Adewuya AO, Ola BA, Afolabi OO. Validity of the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) as a screening tool for depression amongst Nigerian university students. J Affect Disord. 2006;96(1-2):89-93. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2006.05.021
Notes when administering the tool The PHQ is a 9 item scale that is scored on a point system from 0-3 and all items are summed with equal weight, giving a maximum score of 27. As noted above, optimal cut-off scores were determined to be a 5 for minor depressive disorder and a 10 for major depressive disorder. Since the sample population was well-educated, trained research assistants provided them with a written copy of the scale. Sample literacy should be considered in all future studies.