Edinburgh Post-partum Depression Scale- Democratic Republic of Congo

Information about Measure
First Name Judith
Last Name Bass
Email [email protected]
Affiliation Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website, Academia.edu, ResearchGate)
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated Edinburgh Post-partum Depression Scale
Mental health condition assessed Depressive Disorders
Idiom of distress included, if any Not Applicable
Lifestage of interest Adult (General)
Age range (age – age)
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Democratic Republic of the Congo
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Lingala
Clinical or community sample? Clinical
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)? Tool was developed and tested among women seeking ante-natal care at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic. This tool is designed for new mothers.
Development procedures Culturally adapted and validated
If validated, what was the gold standard? Validity assessed through comparison of depression severity scores with severity in dysfunction (functional impairment)
Description of other development procedures, if applicable
Cronbach’s alpha 0.76
Sensitivity 0.85
Spec 0.75
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio]) Optimal cut-off for the scale based off of sensitivity and specificity analyses is 8 points on the adapted 8-item EPDS. 82% of individuals were correctly classified using this instrument. Area under the curve, (standard error), and [confidence intervals are as follows]: 0.83, (0.05), [0.73–0.94].
Links to development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Bass JK, Ryder RW, Lammers M-C, Mukaba TN, Bolton PA. Post-partum depression in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo: validation of a concept using a mixed-methods cross-cultural approach. Tropical Med Int Health. 2008;13:1534–42.; Reliability and Validity of Instruments for Assessing Perinatal Depression in African Settings: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Tsai AC, Scott JA, Hung KJ, Zhu JQ,
Matthews LT, et al. (2013) Reliability and Validity of Instruments for Assessing Perinatal Depression in African Settings: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLOS ONE 8(12): e82521. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082521
Notes when administering the tool Questionnaire should be verbally administered by interviewers, ideally trained, bilingual or polyglot researchers and/or clinicians who are fluent in the native Lingala as well as French and/or English. Sum points with all items equally weighted to calculate total score.

Anyone interested in using this tool should inform Judith Bass about their intent to use it. Any reports or publications arising from use of the tool should acknowledge the Global Mental Health group at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.