Akena Visual Depression Inventory (AVIDI)

Information about Measure
First Name Dickens
Last Name Akena
Email Not Available
Affiliation Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website, Academia.edu, ResearchGate)
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated Akena Visual Depression Inventory (AVIDI)
Mental health condition assessed Depressive Disorders
Idiom of distress included, if any Not Applicable
Lifestage of interest Adult (General)
Age range (age – age) 18-71
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Uganda
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool NA (visual)
Clinical or community sample? Clinical
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)? Patients with HIV/AIDS attending the Nsambya Hospital Home care facility
Development procedures locally-developed,validated
If validated, what was the gold standard? MINI depression module
Description of other development procedures, if applicable Using 6 of the 9 diagnostic criteria outlined in the DSM-IV-TR, as well as one cultural explanatory symptom of depression, the authors worked with a fine artist to depict each symptom visually. The visual instrument was then validated against the MINI depression module among people living with HIV/AIDS.
Cronbach’s alpha
Sensitivity 0.75
Spec 0.71
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio]) For the full-length version of the AVIDI, the suggested cut-off is a score of 10, which corresponds with the sensitivity and specificity values listed. The AUC for the full-length AVIDI was 0.82, with a PPV of 50 and NPV of 83.
Citations of development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool AkenaDJoskaJMusisiSSteinDJ. Sensitivity and specificity of a visual depression screening instrument among HIV-positive individuals in Uganda, an area with low literacyAIDS Behav 2012162399–406


Notes when administering the tool The AVIDI is a visual tool that is  is intended for use in low-literacy populations.
Scoring is as follows: 1. Sadness: scored as 1 if participant endorses healthy (normal) option or 2 if sad 2. Crying spells: scored as 1 if participant endorses healthy (normal) option or 2 if cries frequently 3. Loss of interest: scored as 1 if participant endorses healthy (normal) option or 2 if has lost interest. 4. Worries/Thoughts scored as (a) 0 if participant endorses neither option (i.e. doesn’t endorse worries or too many thoughts), or as a 2 if the participant endorses too many thoughts. 5. Lack of energy: scored as 1 if participant endorses healthy (normal) option or 2 if lacks energy. 6. Loss of appetite: scored as 1 if participant endorses healthy (normal) option or 2 if poor appetite. 7. Suicide scored as 1 if participant endorses healthy (normal) option and 3 if suicidal. The maximum score is 17.