Luo Perceived Stress Scale

Information about Measure
First Name Gillian
Last Name Ice
Affiliation Ohio University College of Osteopathic Medicine
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website,, ResearchGate)
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated Luo Perceived Stress Scale
Mental health condition assessed Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders
Idiom of distress included, if any kimi, yiengni, tetni, jachir, bebni
Lifestage of interest Elderly
Age range (age – age)
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Kenya
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Dholuo
Clinical or community sample? Community
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)?
Development procedures locally-developed
If validated, what was the gold standard? Criterion validity was examined through the associations between LPSS score and caregiving, social networks, depression, and cortisol
Description of other development procedures, if applicable
Cronbach’s alpha 0.75
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio])
Links to development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Ice, G. H., & Yogo, J. (2005). Measuring Stress Among Luo Elders: Development of the Luo Perceived Stress Scale. Field Methods, 17(4), 394-411. doi:10.1177/1525822×05280176
Notes when administering the tool The LPSS should be administered verbally by trained research assistants. Items are coded dichotonomously, positive items are reverse coded, and the LPSS total score is calculated by summing all items with equal weight.