Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC)- Rwanda

Information about Measure
First Name Theresa
Last Name Betancourt
Email [email protected]
Affiliation Boston College School of Social Work
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website,, ResearchGate)
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC)
Mental health condition assessed Depressive Disorders
Idiom of distress included, if any Not Applicable
Lifestage of interest Childhood or Adolescence
Age range (age – age)
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Rwanda
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Kinyarwanda
Clinical or community sample? Community
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)?
Development procedures culturally-adapted,validated
If validated, what was the gold standard? To examine criterion validity, CES-DC scores were compared with depression diagnoses on a structured diagnostic interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children (MINI KID). Caregiver and child or adolescent self-reports endorsing the presence of local depression-like problems agahinda kenshi (persistent sorrow) and kwiheba (severe hopelessness) were also examined for agreement with MINI KID diagnosis.
Description of other development procedures, if applicable
Cronbach’s alpha 0.86
Sensitivity 0.819
Spec 0.719
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio]) The area under the ROC curve for the CES-DC using MINI KID MDE diagnosis as the gold
standard was 0.825.
Links to development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Betancourt, T., Scorza, P., & Meyers-Ohki, S. (2013). Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda. PsycEXTRA Dataset. doi:10.1037/e593732013-001
Notes when administering the tool Given the age of participants, caregivers reported on children who were too young to complete the assessment independently. The tool should either be administered to the adolescents or to their primary caregiver, as is deemed fit by researchers.  The tool should be administered by trained research assistants who are fluent in Kinyarwanda. All items on the scale are summed with equal weight. The optimal cut-off score for this population was determined to be 30 points.