Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)- Ethiopia

Information about Measure
First Name Ayalu Aklilu
Last Name Reda
Email Not Available
Affiliation Department of Public Health, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website,, ResearchGate)
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) – Ethiopian Version
Mental health condition assessed Anxiety and Depression
Idiom of distress included, if any Not Applicable
Lifestage of interest Adult (General)
Age range (age – age)
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Ethiopia
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Amharic
Clinical or community sample? Clinical
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)? HIV/AIDS Patients
Development procedures Culturally adapted
If validated, what was the gold standard?
Description of other development procedures, if applicable
Cronbach’s alpha 0.87
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio]) Additionally, Cronbach’s alpha for the anxiety and depression subscales were 0.76 and 0.87 respectively. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.80, 0.86, and 0.84 for the anxiety subscale, depression subscale, and full scale respectively.
Links to development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Reda AA (2011) Reliability and Validity of the Ethiopian Version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in HIV Infected Patients. PLoS
ONE 6(1): e16049. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016049
Notes when administering the tool The Ethiopian HADS should be administered verbally by a trained research assistant fluent in Amharic. Each item is scored from 0-3, meaning that an individual can score from 0-21 for the full scale. All items on the scale are summed with equal weight to produce a total score. The total score can also be separated into the anxiety and depression subscales.