Pakistan Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire

Information about Measure
First Name David
Last Name Mumford
Email Not Available
Affiliation Centre for Medical Education, University of Bristol
Other means of contacting author (e.g., website,, ResearchGate)
Mental health assessment tool that was adapted/developed/validated Pakistan Anxiety and Depression Questionnaire
Mental health condition assessed Anxiety and Depression
Idiom of distress included, if any Multiple, including, “Do you feel like running from your home?” and “Do you feel fed up with your family members?”
Lifestage of interest Adult (General)
Age range (age – age)
Country or countries where tool was developed/adapted/validated Pakistan
Language(s) of the adapted/developed/validated tool Urdu
Clinical or community sample? Clinical
Subpopulation in which tool was developed/validated (e.g., tool was developed and tested among middle-class women)?
Development procedures locally-developed, culturally-adapted, validated
If validated, what was the gold standard? Validated using the CD-10 Diagnostic Criteria for Research to identify cases of anxiety and depression.
Description of other development procedures, if applicable
Cronbach’s alpha
Sensitivity 0.95
Spec 0.91
Other information about tool (e.g., additional psychometrics [NPV, PPV, Youden’s index, diagnostic odds ratio]) PPV: 0.91, NPV: 0.95
Citations of development/adaptation/validation studies and/or previous studies using the tool Mumford et al., 2005 D.B. Mumford, M. Ayub, R. Karim, N. Izhar, A. Asif, J.T. Bavington
Development and validation of a questionnaire for anxiety and depression in Pakistan
Journal of Affective Disorders, 88 (2005), pp. 175-182
Notes when administering the tool The questionnaire may be completed by the subject unaided or administered by a research assistant in Urdu. The final tool included 30 items which are summed with equal weight. Based on sensitivity and specificity analyses, a threshold score of 11/12 is advised. The full tool is included in both English and Urdu in the publication cited herein.